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Bone Mineral Density

Osteoporitic fragility fractures occur in 1 in 3 women and 1 in 5 men over the age of 50 [1] and are estimated to cost ~£2.3bn in health and social care in the UK alone [2].

IBEX-enabled diagnostic radiography (DR) equipment delivers materials information along with the classic radiograph, giving access to areal bone mineral density (aBMD) information from a single image acquisition taking typically less than 1 s, for the same patient dose. This offers the possibility of earlier and more reliable identification of patients at risk of fragility fractures, leading to better decisions regarding prevention and treatment of osteoporosis, with significant cost savings – and a patient may not need additional hospital visits for DEXA scans in order to estimate fracture risk.

A comparison of BMD measurements on bone/tissue simulant phantoms has been carried out, comparing an IBEX-equipped DR system with a typical hospital DEXA system.  The graph of aBMD against known bone simulant thickness shows excellent agreement between the two systems, regardless of the thickness of the surrounding tissue simulant.  IBEX thus delivers aBMD information along with the conventional diagnostic radiograph.

1. International Osteoporosis Foundation – Facts and Statistics. Available at [Accessed 16/08/16].

2. National Osteoporosis Society (Torgerson, D., Igelesias, C. and Reid, D.M., The economics of fracture prevention. In “The Effective Management of Osteoporosis”, Barlow, D.H., Francis, R.M. and Miles, A. (eds.) 2001, p. 111-121.  Figures updated using mid-2007 population data and the Hospital and Community Health Services (HCHS) pay and price inflation 2006-07).

IBEX-equipped system: Tungsten X-ray source, 80 kV, 0.5 mAs with Rayence 1417 (CsI) flat panel detector fitted with an IBEX MAP.  DEXA system: Hologic Discovery, Freeman Hospital, Newcastle-upon-Tyne Hospitals NHS Trust, operated by specialists using standard procedures, analysed using lumbar-spine presets.  Total sample thickness: 3 cm to 6 cm; bone proportion: 0 to 50% of total thickness.